International Journal of Hematology

DOI: 10.1007/BF02981977 Pages: 40-44

Detection of CD55- and/or CD59-Deficient Red Cell Populations in Patients With Plasma Cell Dyscrasias

1. Laiko General Hospital, First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Athens School of Medicine

3. National Technical University of Athens, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

2. Laiko General Hospital, First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Athens School of Medicine

Correspondence to:
Konstantinos Konstantopoulos
Fax: 301 77 71 161
Email: imeletis@cc.uoa.gr

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Abstract

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal disorder characterized by a decrease or absence of gly-cosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored molecules such as CD55 and CD59 from the surface of affected cells, resulting in intravascular hemolysis, cytopenia, and venous thrombosis. A PNH-like phenotype has been detected in various hematologi-cal disorders, mainly in aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, but also in lymphoproliferative syndromes (LPSs).To the best of our knowledge, CD55- or CD59-deficient red cells have not been detected in plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs). The aim of this study was the detection of CD55- and/or CD59-deficient red cell populations in patients with PCD. Seventy-seven patients were evaluated; 62 with multiple myeloma (MM), 7 with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), 6 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and 2 with heavy chain disease (HCD). The sephacryl gel microtyping system was applied; Ham and sucrose lysis tests were also performed on all samples with CD55- or CD59-negative populations. Red cells deficient in both molecules were detected in 10 (12.9%) of 77 patients with PCD: 2 (28.6%) of 7 with WM, 1 (16.6%) of 6 with MGUS, 6 (9.6%) of 62 with MM, and 1 of 2 patients with HCD. Isolated CD55 deficiency was found in 28.5% of all PCD patients, whereas isolated CD59 deficiency was not observed in any patients.These findings illustrate the existence of the PNH phenotype in the red cells of patients with PCD; further investigation is needed into the mechanisms and significance of this phenotype.

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