International Journal of Hematology

DOI: 10.1007/s12185-014-1657-0 Pages: 243-254

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia during first complete remission: a clinical perspective

1. Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Department of Hematology

Correspondence to:
Masamitsu Yanada
Tel: +81-562-93-9243
Email: myanada@fujita-hu.ac.jp

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Abstract

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the most potent therapy for preventing relapse of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although its efficacy is compromised by a high risk of treatment-related morbidity and mortality, an accumulating body of evidence has led to the general recommendation favoring allogeneic HCT from a matched sibling donor during first complete remission (CR1) for younger patients with cytogenetically intermediate- or high-risk AML. Over the past few decades, this field has seen a great many advancements. The indications for allogeneic HCT have been refined by taking into account the molecular profiles of leukemic cells and the degree of comorbidities. The introduction of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen-typing technology and advances in immunosuppressive therapy and supportive care measures have improved outcomes in alternative donor transplantation, while the parallel growth of unrelated donor registries and greater use of umbilical cord blood and haploidentical donors have considerably improved the chance of finding an alternative donor. The development of reduced-intensity and non-myeloablative conditioning has made it possible to receive allogeneic HCT for patients who might once have been considered ineligible due to advanced age or comorbidities. Thanks to these advances, the role of allogeneic HCT during CR1 has become progressively more important in the treatment of AML.

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