International Journal of Hematology

DOI: 10.1007/s12185-015-1890-1 Pages: 697-701

Respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants with acute leukemia: a retrospective survey of the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group

1. Fukuoka University, Department of Pediatrics

2. Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics

3. Saitama Children’s Medical Center, Department of Hematology/Oncology

4. Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Pediatrics

5. Osaka National Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization

6. St. Luke’s International Hospital, Department of Pediatrics

7. Yokohama City University, Department of Pediatrics

8. Kyoto University, Human Health Sciences

9. Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics

10. National Center for Child Health and Development, Division of Leukemia and Lymphoma, Children’s Cancer Center

Correspondence to:
Takako Miyamura
Tel: +81-6-6879-3932
Email: miyamu@ped.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

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Abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause life-threatening complications of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in young children with malignancies, but reports remain limited. We performed a retrospective nationwide survey to clarify the current status of RSV disease among infants with hematological malignancies. Clinical course, treatment, and outcome of patients with hematological malignancies who suffered from RSV infections at the age of <24 months during anti-tumor therapy from April 2006 to March 2009 were investigated by sending a questionnaire to all member institutions of the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG). Twelve patients with acute leukemia were identified as having experienced RSV disease. The primary diseases were acute myeloid leukemia (n = 8) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 4). RSV infection occurred pre- or during induction therapy (n = 8) and during consolidation therapy (n = 4). Eight patients developed LRTI, four of whom had severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome; these four patients died despite receiving intensive care. In our survey, the prognosis of RSV disease in pediatric hematological malignancies was poor, and progression of LRTI in particular was associated with high mortality. In the absence of RSV-specific therapy, effective prevention and treatment strategies for severe RSV disease must be investigated.

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