International Journal of Hematology

DOI: 10.1007/s12185-016-2122-z Pages: 17-22

Dysregulation of TET2 in hematologic malignancies

1. University of Tsukuba, Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine

Correspondence to:
Shigeru Chiba
Email: schiba-tky@umin.net

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Abstract

The TET dioxygenases, TET1, TET2, and TET3, catalyze transfer of an oxygen atom to the methyl group of 5-methylcytocine (5-mC), converting it to 5-hydroxymethylcytocine (5-hmC). Among the genes encoding these enzymes, ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) is frequently mutated somatically in both myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. Because these TET2 mutations result in the impairment of the dioxygenase activity of TET2, it is thought that these mutations interfere with 5-mC to 5-hmC conversion. There is ample evidence indicating that TET2 mutations are a driver of tumorigenesis in blood cells and that TET2 mutations are often acquired at the hematopoietic stem/early progenitor cell stage. In addition, TET2 is the second-most frequently mutated gene in clonal hematopoiesis in individuals with no apparent blood cancers, suggesting that while TET2 mutations alone are insufficient to cause hematologic malignancy, they represent an early event during tumorigenesis. A number of questions, including the precise target genome regions of TET2, and the importance of the balance of 5-mC and 5-hmC in the regulatory regions in transcriptional control, remain.

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