Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. The long-term effect of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) on ENKTL has been reported occasionally but needs further investigation. In this retrospective study from a single center, 20 ENKTL patients who received induction chemotherapy followed by auto-HSCT ± involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) ± additional chemotherapy were enrolled as a study group. Another 60 fit ENKTL patients who received induction chemotherapy ± IFRT ± additional chemotherapy were selected as the control group. Baseline characteristics of all patients were well balanced. Our analysis showed that after a median follow-up time of 61.0 months (95% CI 52.3–69.7), the auto-HSCT treated group showed better overall survival (OS) than the control group (p = 0.045). The median OS of the auto-HSCT-treated group was not reached, but that of the control group was 62.0 months. Five-year comparison of OS between the two groups also showed a significant difference (79.3 vs. 52.3%, p = 0.026). We suggest that auto-HSCT treatment, in combination with chemoradiotherapy, may prolong OS and improve the long-term outcomes of fit patients with ENKTL compared to treatment with chemoradiotherapy alone.
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