This study evaluated the clinical and cost-effectiveness of prophylactic use of fluconazole versus mould-active triazoles (voriconazole and posaconazole) in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A decision analytical model was developed with inputs from a 7-year retrospective study (2009–2016) of 103 consecutive adult patients with ALL who received antifungal prophylaxis. Information on the administration of antifungal agents, clinical outcomes, and costs were collected. One-way sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed. The mould-active triazoles group was associated with higher life-years (3.71 vs 3.59) and lower total costs (US$4886 vs US$5722) per patient compared with fluconazole. One-way sensitivity analyses revealed that varying all of the key variables in the model did not affect the robustness of the results. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that mould-active triazoles had a probability of 77.1 and 90.1% of providing a dominant and cost-effective option relative to fluconazole, respectively. Mould-active triazoles should be regarded as preferable to fluconazole as the first-line prophylactic for adult patients with ALL accompanied by uncommon severe vinca alkaloid-induced neurotoxicity. However, the results reported here should be interpreted with caution owing to the observational nature of the data.
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