No standard therapy for peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) has been established, and treatment outcomes are poor. Upfront stem cell transplantation has been investigated in several studies, some of which have reported promising outcomes. However, some patients maintain long-term remission after chemotherapy alone. It is thus important to predict sensitivity to first-line chemotherapy to optimize treatment strategies. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed time to treatment failure (TTF) of first-line chemotherapy in 59 patients with PTCLs. On multivariate analysis for TTF, elevated lactate dehydrogenase level, hypoalbuminemia, and high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were significant prognostic factors. Using these three factors, we also developed a new model that effectively distinguished patient outcomes. The TTF rate at 1 year from diagnosis was 71.4% in patients with score 0 (0 factor), 31.8% with score 1 (1 factor) and 4.5% with score 2 (2–3 factors) (P < 0.001). The prognostic power was superior to that of the Prognostic Index for PTCL-unspecified score. Patients with scores of 1 and 2 had poor TTF, and may be candidates for upfront stem cell transplantation if they respond to first-line chemotherapy. Further investigation in a larger cohort is warranted to determine the general applicability of this score.
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