Composite lymphoma (CL) is a rare disorder defined as the coexistence of two or more distinct lymphoma subtypes at a single anatomic site. Discordant lymphoma (DL), which is the simultaneous occurrence of two or more distinct lymphoma subtypes at different sites, is also rare. CL complicated with DL involving three distinct subtypes of lymphoma in the same patient is an extremely rare disease. Clonal relationships in CL and DL are commonly investigated by molecular analysis using mutational status with t(14;18)BCL2/IgH translocation and immunoglobulin heavy chain variable-region (IgVH) gene rearrangement. A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with systemic lymphadenopathy and was initially diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma based on pathological features of the biopsied esophageal tumor. However, the results of inguinal lymph node biopsy led to a revised pathological diagnosis CL consisting of Hodgkin lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Three distinct coexisting lymphomas were identified in this individual patient. Molecular analysis revealed CL derived from common germinal center B-cell precursors, while clonal relationship between CL and DL was not clarified. This case suggests a mechanism underlying B-cell lymphoma pathogenesis involving two pivotal somatic mutations, t(14;18)BCL2/IgH translocation and IgVH rearrangement.
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