ETV6–ABL1 fusion is a rare but recurrent oncogenic lesion found in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL), without an established chromosomal abnormality, and is associated with poor outcome. In ETV6–ABL1-positive cases, an in-frame fusion produced by a complex rearrangement results in constitutive chimeric tyrosine kinase activity. Monosomy 7 is also a rare and unfavorable chromosomal abnormality in childhood BCP-ALL. Here, we report a 14-year-old female BCP-ALL patient with ETV6–ABL1 fusion combined with monosomy 7. She was admitted to our hospital because of persistent fever. Bone marrow nuclear cell count on admission was 855,000/µL with 90.0% blastic cells of lymphoid morphology. Blasts were positive for CD10, CD19, CD20, CD34, cyCD79a, cyTdT, HLA-DR, and CD66c, had a karyotype of 45, XX, − 7 [18/20] and a split signal for ABL1 FISH probe (92.7%), and were sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib and dasatinib, in vitro. ETV6–ABL1 fusion transcript was identified by whole transcriptome sequencing and confirmed by RT-PCR. She was treated with the high-risk protocol based on ALL-BFM 95, achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy, and maintained CR for 4 months. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ETV6–ABL1 fusion combined with monosomy 7 in childhood BCP-ALL.
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