Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) yields a high rate of curability for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it is also associated with transplant-related morbidity and mortality (TRM). The risk and severity of TRM increase with the use of an alternative donor graft in the absence of an HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD). With the declining birthrate and aging of the population, the numbers of patients with an MSD are decreasing, and alternative donor transplants, including the post-transplant cyclophosphamide method using haplo-identical donors, are increasing. Autologous (auto)-HSCT, which enables the intensification of chemotherapy, has the advantage of high availability of a transplant graft, and is associated with a lower TRM, but these benefits may be offset by a higher rate of relapse due to the lack of a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Although allo-HSCT remains the first-line treatment for poor and very-poor-risk patients, auto-HSCT is again gaining increased attention. It has also recently been suggested that cord blood grafts may induce a stronger GVL effect than other grafts; as such, the positioning of cord blood transplantation should also be reconsidered for AML patients.
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