Although the number of patients developing pulmonary complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) necessitating lung transplantation (LT) is increasing, a little information is available about factors influencing the prognosis after LT in these patients. Corticosteroids represent the first-line therapy for pulmonary complications after HSCT; however, prolonged corticosteroid treatment prior to LT increases the potential risks of LT. In this study, we assessed the effect of preoperative corticosteroid therapy on long-term survival in patients undergoing LT after HSCT. We retrospectively investigated data from 13 patients who had received high-dose corticosteroid therapy and nine who had received low-dose corticosteroid therapy prior to LT for pulmonary complications after HSCT. Other than the preoperative corticosteroid dose, patient clinical characteristics did not differ. The incidence of postoperative complications within the first year after LT was significantly lower in the low-dose corticosteroid group (p = 0.026). Survival after LT was also significantly better in the low-dose corticosteroid group than in the high-dose corticosteroid group (p = 0.034). In recipients of LT after HSCT, preoperative low-dose corticosteroid use, as compared to preoperative high-dose corticosteroid use, could limit the risks of postoperative complications developing within the first year after the LT, leading to improved long-term survival after LT.
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