International Journal of Hematology

DOI: 10.1007/s12185-018-2548-6 Pages: 42-50

Anti-tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) therapy: a novel approach to the treatment of haemophilia

1. Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, KD Haemophilia and Thrombosis Centre

Correspondence to:
Pratima Chowdary



Novel approaches to the treatment of haemophilia are needed due to the limitations of the current standard of care, factor replacement therapy. Aspirations include lessening the treatment burden and effectively preventing joint damage. Treating haemophilia by restoring thrombin generation may be an effective approach. A promising target for restoring thrombin generation is tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), a multivalent Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor that regulates tissue factor-induced coagulation via factor Xa-dependent feedback inhibition of the tissue factor–factor VIIa complex. Inhibition of TFPI reverts the coagulation process to a more primitive state evolutionarily, whilst regulation by other natural inhibitors is preserved. An aptamer and three monoclonal antibodies directed against TFPI have been investigated in clinical trials. As well as improving thrombin generation in the range associated with mild haemophilia, anti-TFPI therapies have the advantage of subcutaneous administration. However, the therapeutic window needs to be defined along with the potential for complications due to the novel mechanism of action. This review provides an overview of TFPI, its role in normal coagulation, the rationale for TFPI inhibition, and a summary of anti-TFPI therapies, previously or currently in development.

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