International Journal of Hematology

DOI: 10.1007/s12185-019-02672-4 Pages: 39-49

Single cord blood transplantation in Japan; expanding the possibilities of CBT

1. Toranomon Hospital, Department of Hematology

Correspondence to:
Hisashi Yamamoto
Tel: +81-3-3588-1111
Email: hhhisashi@gmail.com

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Abstract

Cord blood (CB) has been an alternative stem cell source for patients with a wide variety of hematological diseases. Cord blood confers the advantages of rapid availability and higher tolerance to two HLA antigen mismatches compared with unrelated donors, and this has increased opportunities for patients who do not have suitable donors or require urgent transplantation. Although the higher rate of engraftment failure remains a serious concern after cord blood transplantation (CBT), the mechanisms underlying this risk have gradually been clarified, which has helped to improve engraftment. Recent studies of CBT and other alternatives have reported comparable outcomes. Moreover, CBT shows promise even when patients are in a non-remission status, which may reflect the potent graft-versus-leukemia effect of CB. Here we compare the most recent outcomes of CBT with those of other stem cell sources and discuss the potential of CB and several outstanding issues that require resolution.

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