Derivative (5;19)(p10;q10) [der(5;19)(p10;q10)] is a rare chromosomal abnormality in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and is genetically similar to deletion 5q [del(5q)]. However, MDS with der(5;19)(p10;q10) and 5q− syndrome are generally characterized as distinct subtypes. Here, we report a case of a patient with 5q− syndrome-like features as the first manifestation of MDS with der(5; 19)(p10;q10). A 59-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for anemia without leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. She had received chemotherapy comprising carboplatin and docetaxel for endometrial cancer eight years before. Bone marrow aspirate (BM) revealed low blast counts with trilineage dysplastic cells, and fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed the loss of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signals at 5q33-34. Although the initial manifestation was 5q− syndrome, G-banded metaphase analysis and spectral karyotyping analysis revealed der(5;19)(p10;q10). Consequently, a diagnosis of therapy-related MDS (t-MDS) was made. She failed to respond to azacitidine and lenalidomide therapy. Consequently, transfusion-dependent anemia and thrombocytopenia developed with increasing myeloblasts. Cytarabine, aclarubicin, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy also failed, and unfortunately the patient died. Thus, MDS with der(5;19)(p10;q10) may represent a platinum agent-related t-MDS that is highly resistant to chemotherapy.
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